In today’s post I’ll be discussing some of the differences between chlorine and bromine sanitizers. Many people assume chlorine is for pools and bromine is for spas, but that doesn’t have to be the case.
Chlorine is by far the most popular choice for sanitizing swimming pools. It is less expensive than bromine and is available in many forms: 1” tablets, 3” tablets, sticks, granular and liquid. The 3” tablets are the most popular for general pool chlorination. If you would like more information about the various types of chlorine, check out Brett’s post “What Pool Chlorine Type is Best for your Pool?”.
The Difference between Bromine and Chlorine
Chlorine dissolves fairly quickly to begin sanitizing the water. Chlorine tablets or sticks can be used in floating dispensers, in line or offline chlorine feeders, or placed directly in the skimmer basket, though this is not recommended. Granular chlorine can be pre-dissolved in a bucket of water and poured around the pool.
As chlorine begins disinfecting the water or killing algae it forms compounds called chloramines. This is a chlorine molecule combining with Ammonia or Nitrogen. These compounds produce the chlorine smell that many people are associate with swimming pools. As these compounds continue to build up over time they reduce the killing power of the chlorine, and a shock treatment is needed to burn off these inactive chloramines – so that fresh chlorine (or “free” chlorine) can continue to disinfect the pool.
Reaching “breakpoint” chlorination is an important threshold, where everything in the pool is oxidized, and the strong chloramine bond can be broken. Imagine a “shock” or a lightning bolt, ripping through the water, killing anything organic, and removing improper molecular combinations. For more information on shocking the pool, see Lauren’s post on “The Many Types of Pool Shock“.
Chlorine is easily broken down by sunlight and so it is highly recommended that you use a stabilizer, also called conditioner – to prevent this premature breakdown, if your pool is located in the outdoors.
Bromine is only available in 1” tablets and it must be used in a feeder, it may not be used in a floating dispenser or placed in your skimmer basket because it takes a very long time to dissolve. Bromine tablets will only dissolve as water rushes over them through a bromine feeder.
Due to its slow-dissolving nature, bromine can take longer to build up a residual in the water and is therefore more difficult to raise quickly if the bromine level drops.
Unlike chlorine, bromine does not break down easily in sunlight, so no stabilizer is required. Bromine produces compounds called bromamines as it works to disinfect the water, but unlike chloramines, they still remain active and continue to disinfect and don’t produce odor, or burn the eyes. Bromamines can also be reactivated by a shocking treatment and be returned to their full strength, while chloramines are simply burned off and removed from the water.
Those with very sensitive skin may prefer bromine because it generally does not cause as much skin and eye irritation as chlorine sometimes can (though this really shouldn’t be much of an issue if you keep your pool properly balanced).
Bromine is far more stable and effective in high temperatures, which is why it is almost always used in spas and hot tubs. The money you will save by purchasing chlorine over bromine for use in a spa is usually negated rather quickly due to the fact that you will need to use much more chlorine to keep the spa sanitized. Bromine tablets can be used in small floating feeders in spas or hot tubs because they hold such a small amount of water and the bromine can disperse more effectively.
Bromine is also more effective over a wider pH range than chlorine. This is important in the spa environment, where 4 people jumping in suddenly can cause extreme swings in the spa pH level. At pH levels above 8.0, chlorine becomes sluggish and it’s efficacy drops below 50%. Not so with bromine, however, which retains efficacy through higher pH ranges.
Which is better for me, Bromine or Chlorine?
So, Chlorine or Bromine? Chlorine and bromine are both very effective sanitizers, but some people may have more specific requirements or preferences that may make them choose one over the other. If you are a pool owner that routinely forgets to add sanitizer and test your water, then chlorine may be the best choice because it is easier to quickly raise or lower the chlorine levels in your pool. Those with very sensitive skin may prefer bromine. If you do decide to make a switch from chlorine to bromine and you are currently using an automatic feeder, you will need to purchase a new feeder because mixing chlorine and bromine can cause a dangerous chemical reaction.
If you have any questions about which pool sanitizers are right for you, please give us a call, we’re always here to help you make easier decisions regarding your pool!
InTheSwim Staff Blogger